«One of printsipny symptoms of certain psychological diseases is domination of the internal life, being accompanied active withdrawal from the world round us. More languid cases are absolutely reduced to dreams in what, it seems, there passes all life of the unhealthy; we find the same phenomena expressed least in more mild cases. I called this symptom autism», – the Swiss psychiatrist Eygen Bleyler wrote 100 years ago.
The term "autism" occurred from the Greek word "autos" – "itself", «shipped in itself» and is used for designation of psychological disorder of varying severity. Since 1908 the term used for the description of a condition of the last isolation at adults, and since 1943 autism was allocated as separate clinical unit. the 1st description of autism belongs to the South American psychiatrist Leo Kanner. He was born on the district of today’s Ukraine, in the galitsiysky city, education received in Berlin. Later Kanner emigrated to the USA where to it suggested to make children’s psychiatric service at infirmary in Baltimore.
Watching unusual behavior of kids, Kanner allocated symptoms of a disease: the last artistic loneliness, invincible importunate eagerness to a vsepostoyanstvo, beautiful mechanical memory, hypersensitivity to touch influences, excellent cognitive inclinations. In later work Kanner left only two signs: «extreme alienation and importunate eagerness to preservation of monotony of a situation». It considered other symptoms as secondary.
Triad of violations
Autism is a violation of development of nervous system which is characterized by domination of the closed internal life, discharge from the world round us, poverty of expression of feelings. At autism the brain processes touch information on another, than it occurs at the healthy person. Autists are not capable to say (a defect of communications), to conduct interaction in group (violation of public interaction), have limited interests and tendency to monotonous repetition of actions (violation of imagination and public behavior). These three signs make the corresponding triad of autism which in 1981 depicted Lorne Ving’s English researcher. To diagnose, it is not enough 1st or 2 symptoms. In coordination with the International Ordering of Diseases (MKB) accepted by the Global Organization of Health care in 1992, for statement of the diagnosis three of 5 (should be observed see. further, Autism in MKB) violations of the public behavior, two of 5 violations in the conversation, two of 6 violations of interests and behavior. Similar conditions at which more myagenky signs and symptoms are noted, carry to frustration of an autistichesky range.
Difficulties of raneshny diagnostics
More brightly the picture of violation is shown from 2 and a half to 3rd years. Before age symptoms are expressed poorly. Quite often pediatrists, children’s psychiatrists cannot behold in raneshny symptoms of anomaly of development. Recommend to parents to wait a little, hoping that the child will outgrow unusual manifestations. Periodically ancestors are released to notice raneshny pathologies or cannot behold, if it is the 1st child. To establish the diagnosis, consultation at the pediatrist has not enough. Honey of analyses by means of which it is possible to diagnose autism, does not exist. The diagnosis is put on the basis of supervision over how the child behaves and says.
Here therefore autism symptoms the first are noticed by those people who look after the child. As autism is shown in behavior, speech and communication, ancestors notice that the child behaves not how other kids of his age, plays alone, does not look in eyes another. About a half of parents notice unusual behavior of the kid by one and a half years, by two years to differences pay the attention of 80 % of parents. Quite often at parents the feeling is created that the child lives in own separate world. There are repeating, periodically very much, behavior rituals, interests and games. For example, the child is always shaken, is abnormally adhered to certain subjects or very much is upset, if the ordinary course of things changes.
Supervision about one year
Often in infancy kids with autism keep within borders of norm and even surpass it. They can early start to say, be interested in flowers, geometrical figures, books. Differences become perceptible after 2 years. At children’s age costs visit attention to such reactions and behavior of the kid. The kid does not adapt for hands of mother – very much strains or relaxes, finds it difficult to accept a comfortable pose. Does not fix a look on a face of mother, looks "through" people, does not stretch the handle if over it the adult bends, smiles both to people, and subjects, or does not smile in reply to a grin. Usually the kid rejoices to mother or the father, longer them considers, intensively asks communication. At autistichesky development the child promptly gets tired from communication with the adult, does not distinguish expression of persons, can inadequately react to emotions – to sob, when the adult laughs, or to laugh, when that sobs.
Ability to express to emotion is formed at kids after 2 months. With autichny children even the most experienced mother cannot find in a case that the child feels. Usually in 6 months the kid perfectly defines a look of the adult looking after him, attachment to the loved one is formed, distinguishes own from strangers. At the kid with autism attachment to mother is not formed or perceives special forms. The child can not notice mother when it nearby, and very to be afflicted when it is not present, not to accept other members of the family. Very strong crying or a fright in reply to a weak sound or small configurations in a situation can be observed; absence of the satisfied expression after food, revival at the sight of a toy can be more feasible, than reaction to parents. The kid can lose feeling of edge, to be uncontrollable, neposlushlivy. It is almost unreal to distract, if it was fond of something.
Supervision in two-three years
Even if at this time there are no losses in psychological development, there is perceptible a gradual backlog, in particular in speech development. Specifically during this period of feature of development of the kid become obvious for adults. For example, the dream gets bad, there are expressed horrors or irritating movements, the child ceases to react to the appeal. At the kid babble does not become complicated, it is heavy to it to show that he wishes. By three years features in speech and movements, absence of enthusiasm to other children, leaving from communication are perceptible. In reality kids autists do not prefer loneliness. Simply to them very hard to support friendly affairs.
READ ALSO – As the child with autism contemplates the world?
Certain features of behavior cause severe difficulties. For example, rage and self-aggression manifestations, the uncontrollable horror and inclinations, becomes strongly pronounced stereotype of behavior. Refusal of the kid of household actions (a hairstyle, food, washing, a pot, clothing) is usually caused by a combination of real troubles and strong discomfort, horror. Perfectly, when the child starts to say that стращает, but more often only on his behavior – to a click, a look or that it closes eyes or ears handles, – it is possible to realize it that is concrete it стращает. Incorrect reaction of relatives which try to compel the kid to behave "decently", quite often increases horrors or leads to emergence of new strangenesses.
The Autichny child shows bigger enthusiasm to inanimate objects, than to people. Certain kids do not start to say, at others the delay of speech development is observed. Despite of that the autichny child can say, he experiences difficulties at communication. He realizes all words practically (if to it their sense is known), does not read a mimicry, gestures, does not realiz
e jokes and figurative speech. Quite often he wishes to react, but does not know, how it becomes. In speech reversiya (shift of pronouns) and an ekholaliya (introduction of earlier heard phrases) are probable. On a question «You want candy?» you can answer «Want candy». Limited interests. For example, small kids quite often play with one part of a toy, instead of with a toy completely. Kids are more senior can to be interested in one very narrow subject. Eagerness to monotony – in clothes, game, a mode, food, the schedule of day, arrangement of things, toys. Excellent mechanical memory.
To the majority of the people suffering from autism, it is heavy to say with other people and to do ordinary acts. Autists cannot express the feelings, emotions and as cannot realize others. They can seem to people around unsympathetic and tactless. Kids cannot play the games demanding imagination, or sports. The autism is earlier diagnosed, the it is more than chances that the child will manage to gain the necessary abilities. It is impossible to cure autism, but it is possible to teach the kid to the correct behavior, stereotypic reactions, to find comfortable Wednesday for it.
The course of healing of autism assumes development of the educational aaplet respective a level of development of the kid. Healing includes three directions: house therapy, medico-psychological therapy and correction of violations of behavior. In any case, to promote the child with autism to adapt in our society, it is necessary to test to realize its method of thinking and perception of reality.
«The typical autist» does not exist. As a whole autism is shown as a separation from reality. At the same time disruption of communication with the external world can be shown and as the last passivity, and as powerful vulnerability. Lack of an instinct of self-preservation is expressed both as care, and as fearlessness. Food pathology is shown and as selectivity in food, and as possibility to try inedible subjects. Kids can not speak (мутичны), can have the small dictionary laid up, and can remember longish words and difficult phrases. Speech can be languid, and can be exact and chanting.
At people, unhealthy autism, disease symptoms never appear idiyentichno. In the book «Children and children with autism» O.S.Nikolskaya, the managing director of Institute of correctional pedagogics of Russian joint stock company, writes: «The clinical picture of a syndrome polymorphic and inconsistent that outside contrasts with clearness of the main criteria … It is represented but that this discrepancy can be considered as specific line of a syndrome». At each kid of the autist the illness can be shown differently. Therefore researchers rely not so much on exact aspects, how many on an overall picture of frustration.
Autism in MKB
Violations in соц assistance
1) absence of contact «eyes in eyes», oddish position of a body, a look, inadequate introduction of gestures;
2) inability to establishment (an adequate method and in the presence of ability) friendship on the basis of common interests, occupation and feelings;
3) absence or very the most rare tests to find in other people a consolation and love in the moments of a stress or when to them it is bad, inability to express a consolation, compassion or love to another when that it is bad;
4) absence of manifestation of pleasure if others show it, and/or absence of attempts to divide the satisfaction with others;
5) absence of manifestation of a sociality and the feelings, expressed in social reaction to emotions of other people, and/or lack of a configuration of behavior is dependent on need of a public context, and/or weak integration of sotsioemotsionalny and communicative behavior.
Violations in communication
1) a delay or total absence of the speech, not being accompanied attempt to fill it other methods of communication, such as gestures, a mimicry etc.;
2) inability to begin or keep up the conversation (regardless of existence of speech abilities), inability to exchange remarks at communication with other people;
3) stereotypic and cyclic introduction of language and/or an idiosyncrasy in use of words and phrases;
4) anomalies in height of tone of a voice, an accent, speed, speed and intonation of speech;
5) lack of contrast at a role-playing game or, at raneshny age, at social simulating game.
Stereotypic models of behavior and interests
1) pogloshchennost stereotypic and limited interests;
2) specific attachment to certain subjects;
3) the energetic requirement of observance of specific, nonfunctional rituals and the got established order;
4) the stereotypic and repeating impellent manerizm including spinning, a clap, waves hands/fingers or difficult movements of all body;
5) energetic attention to parts of subjects or nonfunctional game materials (an obnyukhivaniye, palpation of surfaces, hearing of noise which they do);
6) frustration concerning small, insignificant configurations in a surrounding situation.
Founder: Natalia Kalinichenko