All ancestors hope that the school will help the kid to become the creative, comprehensively developed person. A question "how to bring up the harmonious personality" the teacher answered during an era of the Renaissance when education was advantage. Erazm Roterodamus, Rabelais, Montaigne knew: the quite good teacher respects the kid and believes in it. In the 17th century stately Czech teacher Jan Komensky proved: "It is necessary to awaken enthusiasm in the kid to study, using feelings, reason and belief". Frenchman Russo considered as a basis of education free development. But it is exclusive at the beginning of the 20th century thanks to teachers innovators these ideas found the general embodiment, and the usual school turned around faced to the child and listened to his view.
Closer to life
READ ALSO – Training of kids of school age of the house
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) – the British scientist-evolyutsionist. Criticized book education and mechanical cramming." Education should bring practical advantage, – he wrote, – to provide multilateral development of the identity of the kid". From nuance of life of the kid and the influence rendered on it in the childhood, depends, what person he will grow. Spencer said about need "to develop all person". Founder of the book "Education: intellectual, moral, physical" (1861). The adherent of moral education, used a principle of natural consequences. Kids on a personal experience should feel, to what conduct their acts. As the quite good act brings satisfaction, and bad leads to troubles, the moral person aspires to quite good acts and avoids the bad. That approach develops internal discipline and forms temper of the kid. Spencer pedagogical purpose – to make such personality which will operate itself, instead of such which others will operate.
"True activity is most ideally provided in life when bad and excellent consequences of acts instead of when take them on trust from what others have told" are learned. G. Spencer
Ellen Kay (1849-1926) – the Swedish public deyatelnitsa, the activist of movement for the rights of ladies, motherhood and youth protection. Adherent of free education, founder of the book "Century of the kid" (1899). Ellen Kay considered that configurations in outlook of the person lead to changes in society. The world in what he will manage to develop freely is necessary to the child. It is necessary to provide to the nature of the kid "is weakened and sluggish to help most for itself". The motto "To live for the sake of kids" Kay replaced new: "Let’s live to children". The pedagogics, on its view, should not arrange the kid under the world round us, and help it to reveal. The free personality will defend the rights and standards, meeting the evil and injustice. This direction of pedagogics was guided by Lev Tolstoy theory about free education.
"The adult person would descend from reason if any joker titan takes in head during the 1st only day so to say with it as he addressed the whole years with the child". E.Kay
Training by action
John Dewey (1859-1952) – the South American philosopher, the sociologist, the psychologist. Founder of a pragmatism. Founder of the book "School and society" (1899). Main thought:" The child is the center of the pedagogical Universe, and all means of education should turn round it". Dewey’s ideas induced the first Russian teachers who have created in the 1920th years uniform labor school. Later, at Stalin, the authoritative model of school affirmed. In 2000 complete transfer of work of Dewey "Democracy and society" (1936) was published. Dewey suggested to re-embody school in model of democratic society. Considered education not as preparation for adult life, as life. For this purpose school life is necessary for approaching to the daily. Education according to Dewey – not the restriction imposed on the kid, and assistance to its development. At ordinary school the child receives knowledge, and is trained them later to use. Dewey has a child, facing with неуввязками, solves them, receiving the necessary knowledge and abilities. The pedagogical aaplet is under construction, proceeding from interests, possibilities, requirements and a level of development of the pupil. The purpose – to train the kid in self-checking, creating situations which demand active act.
"The thinking – the only way of training which can be called rather clever because it uses and enriches reason". D. Dewey
Eagerness to the truth
Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) – the Austrian philosopher, esoterics, the reformer and the designer. Supported independence of educational institutions of city control, the founder of Valdorfsky school, the founder of the book "Education of the kid" (1907). Main principles: eagerness not to knowledge, and to the truth; "not advancing" of development of the kid. The training material moves эрами. Day is broken into three parts: spiritual (active thinking), spiritual (training to music and dance), creative (molding, drawing, sewing). The training material is given taking into account compliance of development of the kid and development of historical society. fortresses. The main way – "spiritual economy". The way is that in the course of training at kids develop that activity which it can master without internal resistance of an organism.
"I thought that education and teaching should become the art based on an original zaniye of the person". R. Steiner
Do not disturb the child
Maria Montessori (1870-1952) – the teacher, the female doctor 1st in Italy. The founder of the book "Way of the scientific pedagogics used in houses of the kid" (1909), "Absorbing reason of the kid" (1949). Main thought: the child possesses born need for freedom and self-education. Montessori rejected an authoritative approach and made the pedagogical environment which corresponds to needs of the kid and supports his activity. She achieved to provide the kid to herself, not to interfere with it in a free choice, in fascinating occupation for it. On its view, the discipline is an activity of the kid which does that is necessary for it. At all this the teacher helps the child, instead of imposes it the facts, thoughts and words. Education according to Montessori is urged to develop will of the kid which is a printsipny condition of formation of the personality. Main slogan of a way of Montessori: "Help me to make it most".
"Freedom is a unique means very much to develop the personality, temper, reason and feelings of the kid". M. Montessori
Training by feeling
Henry Sharrelman (1871-1940) – the German teacher, the opponent of ordinary education. Founder of the book "Labor school" (1909). Main thought: training should meet half-way the child, allowing him to correct the errors and mistakes. Sharrelman contemplated school as labor society of kids which under control of the teacher set the purposes and try them to reach. Opponent of an aaplet and planning, adherent of an incidental statement. Pupils acquire a material, asking questions. The direction gives to a lesson children’s curiosity. The teacher follows spontaneously arising interests of kids, giving them knowledge necessary here and at present. Sharrelman addresses not to reason, and to a heart of the kid, developing his emotional and esthetic perception.
"The way from billiards to a geometrical axiom is even more natural to the kid, than, on the contrary, a way from an axiom to billiards. Therefore and on tyshche other events – freedom of a way for the teacher and a material freedom of choice for the kid". G. Sharrelman
Right to be itself
Janusz Korchak (1879-1942) – the doctor, the children’s writer, the Polish teacher of the Jewish origin (Henry Goldshmit). Korchak divided society into two classes – oppressed kids and oppressors of adults. He believed in absolute value of youth, defended the rights of kids, protected their interests. Its most popular book for adults – "How to adore the kid" (1918). The main thought – it is impossible to bring up the kid without a role of the kid. Kids have the rights. They can achieve attentive business to the dilemmas, have outlook and freely it state, organize the life, use pluses, hide defects. Rights to a protest, to a mistake, secret, property, game. The book "The right of the kid to respect", written by Korchak in 1929, became the manifesto of humanistic pedagogics. In 1942 refused to abandon own pupils, pupils of the House of orphans, and in common in them entered into the gas chamber of a concentration camp of Treblink.
"We play with children marked cards; helplessness of children’s age we beat aces of pluses of adults. Sharpers, we so garble cards that the most bad in children to oppose that in us is excellent and valuable". Y.Korchak
To muzzle to the Cousin (1881-1973) – the French teacher. Achieved to abolish ordinary training because it brakes creative development. Training realized not as impact of the teacher on the pupil, as work of the pupil on the development. Offered a way of free work as groups – as for game. Essence of a way – full freedom and informative activity. Pupils incorporate воединыжды in groups, choose occupation and do it, addressing to the teacher for consultation. For example, his pupils studied not history of policy and wars, and history of subjects, clothes, transport, housing. If girls wished to learn to sew, to them the mathematics for fabric calculation, a cut and sewing was required. To the cousin divided teaching and the doctrine. Its way allowed children to live, say, work in team and to develop modesty, aggressiveness, tolerance and an initiative.
"My way allows children to be trained in real sense of this word, instead of to be uchimy". R.Kuzine
Alexander Nill (1883-1973) – the British teacher, the theorist of free education. The founder of the book "Sammerkhill – education by freedom" (1960). Main thought: the child is internally wise and realistic. Pedagogical pressure spoils the kid. It is not necessary to press on it, and he will be developed how is capable. Basic principle: there is nothing more important than happiness of the kid, and the happiness is unreal without a personal liberty. Nill appreciated intellectual development below, than emotional and esthetic. At school Sammerkhill Nill made a pleasant comfortable situation in what kids studied democracy and self-government, also were engaged in active labor involvement. Purpose: to train the kid to think, instead of to fill his head with knowledge. Result: relaxed, assured in itself, the conceiving person. Nill was the opponent of oppression of sex appeal and declared that denial of sex equivalently to life denial.
"The happy family is similar to an orchestra and is charmed by the same spirit of uniform team. The ill-starred family is similar to the barracks operated by a rage and punishments". A.Nill
Training by opening
Charles Rogers (1902-1987) – the South American psychologist and the psychoanalyst, the successor Dewey’s thoughts. The main problem – the self-realization of the person based on disclosure of internal potential. In work "Personal thoughts concerning training and the doctrine" (1953) Rogers specifies that is unreal to transfer to other person the knowledge extracted and acquired on a personal experience therefore pupils should "open" knowledge. He considered that the usual school – a neotklonimy aaplet, standard tests, a naruzhny gain score – suppresses activity of kids, lowers their enthusiasm to occupations. Such system does not answer inquiries of society. Only the human approach develops the most valuable in children – reason and a heart. Kids feel that to them trust, them respect; they are trained to make decisions and to make a responsible choice. The teacher turns group of pupils into society of researchers. Education purpose: to make all an object of research and examinations, to realize that all floatingly. Rogers calls three signs of the teacher: honesty, trust to the pupil, empathy – ability to realize the pupil.
"I felt that that knowledge which is appropriated by pupils essentially influences behavior only and is connected with the opening made by them". K.Rogers
Alis Miller (1923-2010) – the Swiss psychologist and the psychoanalyst, studied difficulties of physical, sensual and sexy abuse over children. Main thought: though what education is a violence which leaves a bad trace in mentality of the kid. On its view, student teaching is based on an arbitrariness and oppression, dependence and an inequality. Alices considered that pedagogical stereotypes injure kids and studied, as it influences a situation in society. The person should understand the children’s tortures and overcome their consequences. The founder of the world blockbuster "The drama of the gifted kid and search own "I", forced many people
to reconsider the affairs with parents and children.
"Till this moment society protects adults and blames them victims … In reality kids are inclined to blame for everything themselves, relieving parents of responsibility for the fierce appeal with them". A.Miller
Let’s remember also teachers of the Russian school. Konstantin Dmitriyevich Ushinsky (1824-1871) – the founder of the Russian pedagogics, considered basic training in work, and education realized as a full development of the person. Ways of education by work, personality formations in collective Russian teacher Anton Semenovich Makarenko (1888-1936), the founder of "The pedagogical poem", "Developed books for parents". In 1988 of UNESCO called 4 teachers who have defined the direction of education in the XX century: John Dewey, George Kershenshteyner, Maria Montessori and Anton Makarenko.
Vasily Aleksandrovich Sukhomlinsky (1918-1970) connected humanity principles to communistic standards: value of the identity of the kid, creativity of group of adherents, training as cheerful work and education by beauty. Its literary inheritance "A heart I give to children", "Believe in the person", "100 councils to the teacher" are burning and is inexhaustible.
The cooperation pedagogics (Shalva Amonashvili, Victor Shatalov, Sofia Lysenkova), or human pedagogics develops in the Russian Federation, and with it – conceiving confident in own forces the pupil.
This list lasts povsevremenno. And everyone can continue it. At many of us were and there are loved teachers who honest answered difficult questions, helped and helped out, learned to think and not to fear mistakes. People who understood us. Simply teachers who perfectly do the work.
Founder: Natalia Kalinichenko